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What is Gevo’s mission?

Gevo’s mission is to transform carbon and renewable energy into energy-dense liquid hydrocarbons.

What is Gevo’s core business?

Gevo transforms renewable energy and carbon into energy-dense advanced renewable liquid hydrocarbons. These liquid hydrocarbons can be used for drop-in transportation fuels such as gasoline, jet fuel, bunker fuel, and diesel fuel, that have the potential to yield net-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when measured across the full lifecycle of the products. In doing this, we also provide economic opportunities for farmers and the rural communities in which they live and work. Gevo’s low-GHG transportation fuels help other companies reach their climate goals.

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What are greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions?

A greenhouse gas is a gas that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range, caus- ing the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone.

Where do the majority of GHGs come from in the U.S.?

According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 27% of GHGs come from fuels burned in the transportation sector. Industry and electricity generation accounts for approximately 50% of the GHG footprint, primarily from burning natural gas and coal. Agriculture accounts for roughly 10%.


What is Gevo’s sustainable aviation fuel made from?

Gevo uses residual starch from inedible field corn. This corn is grown using regenerative and precision farming practices, enabling a low-carbon intensity feedstock.

Learn more about sustainable aviation fuel >

Learn more about corn and the carbon cycle >

Is sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) safe?

Yes. Gevo’s fuel must meet rigorous criteria set out in aviation fuel specifications, both for physical properties and fit-for-purpose properties. The specifications for sustainable aviation fuels are defined in ASTM Standard D7566, and specific annexes to the Standard apply to individual processes for producing SAF. On a molecular level, SAF is no different than traditional aviation fuel made from fossil petroleum.

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How does Gevo’s fuel compare to petroleum-based jet fuel?

Gevo’s fuel is indistinguishable from the petroleum-based jet fuel currently in use and is commonly referred to as a “drop-in” fuel. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) have also issued special airworthiness bulletins indicating that this fuel is suitable and available for commercial use. SAF has been safely used in aircraft flown commercially, by the military, and by private aircraft since 2008, according to International Air Transport Association (IATA)1.

What is a Net Zero production facility?

Gevo introduced the concept of Net Zero production facilities in 2021. These facilities are expected to pro- duce energy-dense liquid hydrocarbons like SAF using renewable energy and proprietary technology. Gevo’s first facility is expected to be built in Lake Preston, South Dakota and is scheduled for completion in 2025.

These fuels, when used for transportation, should have a net-zero greenhouse gas footprint as measured across the entire lifecycle, based on the Argonne National Laboratory’s GREET model. This has a direct posi- tive impact on companies and travelers concerned about their greenhouse gas footprint.

It is important to note that Gevo also produces protein. For every gallon of SAF produced, Gevo also produces high-value nutritional products, thus making Gevo one of the only renewable jet fuel producers making both food and fuel with carbon savings.

Learn more about the Net Zero production facility >

How does the price of SAF compare to standard jet fuel and will
the usage of SAF affect pricing?

Because Gevo is adding production capacity in response to market growth, the selling price at the factory gate will be higher for SAF than standard jet fuel. However, at the airport or customer gate, the realized
price to customers is expected to be only a small premium in the near term. This is due to policies such
as renewable fuel standards (RFS), low carbon fuel standards (LCFS), and tax credits, which add value for renewable SAF. As oil prices rise over time, carbon value incrementally increases, and production reaches optimized economies of scale, it is possible to envision a market where SAF could become incrementally less expensive than standard jet fuel.

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Is this a true fossil replacement?

Yes, this is jet fuel. SAF is blended with fossil fuel and is recertified as jet fuel. The resulting jet fuel then provides a reduced carbon intensity and particulates, and adheres to the strict requirements that all aviation fuel must meet as laid out in the ASTM International (ASTM) D7566 standard.

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How does SAF perform with respect to air-quality pollutant emissions?

Gevo’s SAF affords the opportunity to lower local air pollutant emissions through the reduction of particulates, sulfur, and aromatic compounds. Thus, when blended with traditional fuel, overall sulfur and aromatic content is reduced. We are also working with universities to understand the other health and environmental benefits of using SAF rather than jet fuel.

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What is the blend rate of SAF?

The SAF is commingled in the fuel infrastructure just as standard jet fuel is commingled. It can be blended up to 50% according to ASTM standards today. ASTM is working with airframe and engine manufactures to look at 100% SAF usage in upcoming aircraft coming off the assembly line.

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What is a drop-in SAF?

Drop-in sustainable aviation fuels are completely compatible with a conventional (typically petroleum-de- rived) jet fuel in terms of materials, safety, and composition. This means a drop-in fuel does not require adaptation of the fuel distribution network or engine fuel systems, it can be used “as is” in air frames and engines that have historically operated with only petroleum jet fuel. New technology is not necessary, the systems, machinery, storage, pipelines, trucks, and airplanes currently in use can continue to be used. The specifications for sustainable aviation fuels are defined in ASTM Standard D7566, and specific annexes to the Standard apply to individual processes for producing SAF.

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Does SAF affect aircraft performance?

The effects can be slightly positive, but overall operability and safety are equal. For example, testing has shown that higher-energy-density SAF, such as Gevo’s, can improve fuel burn, and positively affect an aircraft’s maximum payload range.

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Is SAF tested and certified?

All sustainable aviation fuels used in commercial aviation are certified and undergo rigorous external testing (including engine testing). This process takes several years and includes fuel production. The leading international standard development organization, ASTM International, approved specifications for SAF made from alcohol-to-jet, synthetic paraffinic kerosene in March 2016. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issued a Special Airworthiness Information Bulletin authorizing the use of these fuels in May 2016.

Learn more about sustainable aviation fuel >

Do biofuels produce carbon dioxide emissions?

Every fuel has a carbon intensity when burned, but the net value of that carbon intensity could either
be positive, like fossil fuels, or negative, like advanced renewable fuels. We expect the SAF from Net-Zero 1 to achieve a GHG score of approximately –5 gco2e/MJ. The carbon footprint will be tracked, measured, and included in the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), which all biofuel producers should review and share to give an accurate accounting of their products’ carbon intensity. We believe Argonne Labs’ GREET model is the most advanced and accurate method for measuring carbon intensity across the entire life cycle.

What methods will Gevo use to lower the carbon intensity?

Gevo is focused on decarbonization in every step of the production process. It starts with the farmers who supply the feedstock. They use enhanced agriculture techniques to improve carbon sequestration in the soil, including strip-tilling. The farmers employ land-use methods that provide measurable carbon sequestration and conservation of resources. These advances are good for our process, but they also make economic sense for the farmer by improving yields and reducing expenses, such as costs for additional synthetic fertilizer.

When using cellulosic feedstocks, Gevo plans to establish a sustainable and certified procurement system to ensure that the objectives of carbon score and sustainability are reached.

What does Gevo mean when we say we are building a “circular economy”?

Figure 1

Gevo’s circular economy approach (see Figure 1 to left) aims to disrupt the traditional linear model of production by integrating all aspects of production and maximizing value and efficiency while minimizing waste. This means using photosynthesis to sequester atmospheric carbon, producing both food and fuel from every bushel of corn that enters our process, and using renewable energy, including both wind power and biogas, to meet the energy demands of our plant operations.

The results of our circular economy approach? High-value protein to supplement the food system and drop-in hydrocarbon fuels that can be used in existing infrastructure, all with a net-zero (or better) carbon intensity when measured across the full life cycle of the product.³

Learn more about Corn and Carbon Cycle >


How does Gevo work to achieve a net-zero carbon footprint?

Gevo believes in exploring all possible avenues for carbon reduction and integrating them together in a circular economy approach. Among the various methods we expect to employ are: Regenerative agriculture techniques that can sequester carbon in soil and precision farming techniques to use inputs more efficiently, such as fertilizer and chemicals Renewable electricity production on-site Investment in maximum efficiency fermentation procedures.

Colocation of plants near suppliers.

Sustainable cornBiogas production from manure/wastewaterOff-the-grid model for our production plants

Moving away from fossil fuel demands.

Directly engaging farmers in zero- and low-carbon economics.

Learn more about the Net Zero 1 project >

Learn more about Sustainable Farming >


What is regenerative agriculture?

Regenerative agriculture builds up the soil, enriches it with nitrogen and other key nutrients, reduces dependence on synthetic fertilizers, and improves yield. This type of farming has the added benefit of capturing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in crop biomass and soil.

Gevo promotes regenerative techniques that help slow or even reverse soil erosion. Farmers who plant corn crops can use manure from their own livestock as field fertilizer, preserving soil nutrients and reducing the need to buy synthetic fertilizers

Learn more about Regenerative Agriculture >

What regenerative agriculture techniques does Gevo deploy?

Gevo works with farmers to incorporate regenerative techniques into their everyday farming practices, reaping the benefits through improved yields, reduced costs, and overall sustainability improvements.

Reduced tillage or low tillage practices improve soil health, prevent nutrient losses, and sequester even more carbon in the soil. Sometimes known as strip-tilling or zone-tilling, this technique creates narrow-width tilled strips, which utilize strategically positioned plantings in crop fields to offer improvements in soil biodiversity. This allows corn to be planted during cool periods and wet soil conditions. After harvest, rows of corn roots are left to deteriorate over time and become part of the soil. The following season, the farmer tills a narrow strip in between the previous year’s rows, repurposing last year’s crop roots as fertilizer for the next season’s corn.

Soil biological amendments like biochar or corn stover can result in reduced synthetic fertilizer application in farmers’ application practices by at least 10 to 15 percent per year, and consequently reduce nitrous oxide emissions.

Cover crops help rebuild soil by reducing erosion and runoff. The roots of cover crops help hold soil together and the plants themselves can deflect the impact of rain drops. Cover crops also hold nutrients in their roots and stalks and contain microbial biomass that holds more water, more nutrients, and aerates the soil. Regenerative agricultural practices are good for the land, good for the environment, good for the farmer and good for Gevo and our customers.

Learn more about Regenerative Agriculture >

Is there enough feedstock to expand production of renewable fuel?

Gevo believes that the challenge of meeting the basic needs of humanity– food, energy, and a healthy environment– must be tackled with an integrated approach that emphasizes getting the most out of the land, in the most sustainable way possible. For Gevo, this means land should primarily be used for food production. We believe that our circular economy approach embodies this philosophy. Today, Gevo only uses residual starches from inedible field corn as feedstock, as starch- es are not highly valued for their nutritional content and are widely available across the world. This ensures that high-value protein and corn oil are available for other uses, such as supplementing the global food supply.

Since Gevo’s philosophy prioritizes land use for food, there is an incentive to attain higher yields on land currently being used to produce crops. But increases in yields must be done in a sustainable manner. We know that regenerative agricultural practices lead to higher yields from the same fields. There is significant room to improve both food and feedstock supplies: according to the Global Yield Gap Atlas, which accounts for local weather and soil conditions, rainfed corn yields in the US could be increased by as much as 28 percent. Yields in Brazil could rise as much as 80 percent, while India could see a 480 percent increase.⁹ In other words, land that is already being used to grow crops could be used much more efficiently, increasing crop production for food and other uses without the need to convert any additional land.

We also recognize that the best type of crop for a given plot of land will vary depending on local conditions. It makes no sense to irrigate a plot of land when a more drought-resistant crop could be grown without supplemental water. As Gevo explores additional markets for advanced renewable fuels around the world, other regeneratively grown feedstock options will become possibilities, from sugar beet to sugar- cane, to lignocellulosic sources such as rice straw, bagasse, and even forestry residue such as treetops and branches from sustainable forestry management systems.

corn and sustainable aviation fuel

Is the corn used to make SAF and other renewable fuels the kind of corn we eat?

No. The corn used for Gevo’s SAF is industrial, field corn. It is not sweet corn that is found in cans or corn on the cob. For generations, it has been grown for the purpose of feeding animals, not humans. When Gevo uses this sustainable corn as a feedstock, the process creates approximately 5.7 pounds of high-value nutritional feed products for every gallon of fuel produced. In no way are our fuels taking food away from you or your family.

Learn more about Corn and Carbon Cycle >

Learn more about Sustainable Aviation Fuel >

How does Gevo put “food first”?

Gevo’s process is designed to deliver nutrition from every acre of land, using only the residual starches as feedstock for fuel production. In fact, protein products for use in livestock, aquaculture, and pet food markets are expected to be the largest product created by weight of our planned Net-Zero 1 plant.

We separate out the various components of every bushel of field corn that enters our process (including protein, oil, fiber, and starch). It is our goal to use the nutritional value present in every bushel
to improve the food chain. That means, most of all, we prioritize improving the global supply of protein. Starches, on the other hand, are neither a significant source of nutritional value nor in short supply across the world. That’s why we use the residual starches, which are left over from producing high-value nutrition products, as feedstock for our fuels. Our goal is to use the whole kernel wisely to replace the whole gallon of fossil fuel responsibly.

Learn more about Protein and High-Value Nutrition Products >

Does growing corn pollute the environment?

Quite the opposite. Aside from farming—going back some 12,000 years—large-scale carbon capture does not exist. Gevo embraces sustainable agriculture and partners with farmers to improve their farming practices. Partnering farmers capture carbon in the soil with sustainable practices such as precision agriculture and conservation tillage. They optimize the chemicals applied to the land for the benefit of the soil by using low-tillage and no-tillage practices, by protecting groundwater run-off with drain tiles, and by using manure rather than synthetic nitrogen. Additionally, there are several technologies, such as those offered by Locus Ag Solutions, being developed that could increase this carbon capture by an order of magnitude or more by enhancing soil quality and root-system growth.

Learn more about Corn and the Carbon Cycle >

What does Gevo do with the protein produced from feedstock and
why is protein so important for the food system?

Gevo’s process ensures that the protein produced from our feedstocks remains in the food system, through animal feed, pet nutrition and aquaculture, helping to improve the availability of this crucial protein for the world while simultaneously working to mitigate climate change by producing low-carbon, drop-in fuels.

Learn more about Protein and High-Value nutrition products >

Does SAF from corn increase food prices?

Gevo uses inedible field corn to make its fuels, so the price of your food should be unimpacted by our SAF. Our focus is on paying farmers fairly for the value they create through regenerative farming practices, on ensuring that we reduce or eliminate waste in every part of our value chain, and on improving access to sustainable hydrocarbons, fuels, and other products.

Is nonfood starch the best feedstock for sustainable aviation fuel?

It’s the right place to start. Over the long run, many sources of renewable carbohydrates could be used. Gevo’s technology enables the use of sugar, molasses, carbohydrates from agricultural residues like straw and stover, sugars from wood, and from municipal solid waste. In choosing feedstocks, the key criteria are sustainability profile, price, volume and—importantly for Gevo—giving local farmers additional revenue streams for their products.

Why does Gevo use corn as a feedstock instead of municipal solid waste
which could help solve the waste problem?

We use corn because it is sustainable, renewable, biogenic and has the natural ability to capture carbon. The best thing to do with municipal solid waste is to reduce or eliminate it, by diverting garbage from landfills and reusing and recycling more efficiently. The second-best usage is to capture landfill methane for local direct energy production. If municipal solid waste can be separated from fossil-based products such as plastic bottles, then there is potential for its use as a feedstock. But since GHG emissions are caused by the burning of petroleum/fossil-based products, burning plastics made from fossil carbon also contributes to the GHG footprint. These feedstocks need to be tracked and proven to be sustainable and renewable.

How does Gevo guarantee that its product is sustainable?

To verify sustainability claims for bio-based products globally, Gevo relies on the expertise of trusted third-party groups. Gevo is committed to satisfying the criteria established by two such independent watchdogs, the Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials (RSB) and the International Sustainability and Carbon Certification (ISCC). Gevo is a member of both organizations and we have obtained RSB Global and RSB CORSIA Certifications for biomass production and SAF trading. In achieving certification from these organizations, Gevo ensures that the sustainability of its feedstocks and the carbon emissions savings from its final products are confirmed by third-party review.

How do the Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials (RSB) and the International
Sustainability and Carbon Certification System (ISCC) view corn?

Both RSB and ISCC offer certification to any corn or other crop-based product that meets or exceeds their sustainability requirements. Sustainability requirements include restrictions on land conversion from high-carbon lands such as forest, wetlands, grasslands, or peatlands; stewardship of air, water, and soil resources; maintaining biodiversity; adherence to standards for human rights, labor rights, and human health and safety; and mitigating risks to food security.

Will corn feedstock-based fuels be eliminated from certification under RSB and ISCC?

No, corn is not set to be eliminated. Sustainability certifications only set standards for products to meet. Creating such standards enables more qualified claims to sustainable feedstocks, including corn.

NET ZERO greenhouse gas emiSsions

How does Gevo get to net-zero GHG emissions?

We expect the fuel produced from Net-Zero 1 to achieve a GHG score of approximately -5 gco2e/ MJ. Figure 2 (see below) provides a visual of the GHG emissions for Gevo’s products. This data includes the regenerative agricultural practices our farmers employ to grow corn. It also factors in Gevo’s use of renewable resource-based electricity, renewable resource-based gas and green hydrogen. As a result, our total carbon score is approximately -5. If we utilize geological sequestration, there is the potential to drive the carbon intensity score as low as -40. These calculations include the entire lifecycle of the fuel, from production to burn. Gevo intends to verify these claims utilizing the state-of-the-art Argonne GREET (The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model to account for the real impact of transportation fuel, measuring fuel from feedstock to production to combustion.

Figure 2

Note: Gevo is actively working with Argonne National Laboratory to publish GHG values for Net-Zero 1 and future plants. Better management defined by Argonne on average as low farming CI, and sustainable farming practices like cover crops. Depending on corn portfolio Gevo has, the -31gCO23/MJ value shown here will vary between 0 and -62. On average Gevo is assuming a conservative portfolio that mainly sources low tillage corn.

Learn more about Net Zero projects >

Learn more about Corn and the Carbon Cycle >

farming and deforestation

What is Gevo’s approach to contributing to improved and regenerative farming?

Gevo encourages and anticipates paying farmers a premium for better farming practices. Many of Gevo’s partner farmers use no-till or low-till techniques. Strip-tilling is a method where farmers till a narrow strip of soil, 10cm wide, where the seeds are planted, and the fertilizer is applied only in this specific location so it can aid in the early growth of foliage and roots following seed germination. Because strip-tilling is precision-guided by farm equipment with satellite navigation, the strips can be placed between the rows of last year’s crops, leaving the existing root structure to hold the soil together as it decays. This additional organic matter feeds soil microbes and represents amplified sequestered carbon, drawn down from the atmospheric carbon pools.

Measuring this carbon sequestration is part of the equation of reducing the carbon intensity of every liter of fuel. Gevo’s sustainable aviation fuel captures somewhere from 0.21 to 1.06 kilograms of atmospheric carbon dioxide equivalents in the soil for every liter of jet fuel produced. The use of this natural storehouse could allow us to sequester an additional 1 billion to 3 billion tons of carbon annually and is hence a carbon sink. That’s equivalent to 3.5 to 11 billion tons of carbon dioxide emissions.

Most of the biomass used to produce Gevo’s advanced fuels will come from sources that use regenerative farming techniques that build soil organic carbon.

Learn more about Regenerative Agriculture >

What is soil carbon sequestration?

Soil carbon sequestration is the process whereby carbon in the atmosphere is captured through photosynthesis and stored in the soil. Plants use energy from the sun as fuel for their own growth process, which converts that atmospheric carbon into biomass. Much of that biomass is left in the soil after harvest to build carbon stocks, while microbes in the soil work synergistically with plants leading to an increase in soil carbon.

Agriculture and other human activity can serve to either increase or decrease soil carbon. For example, conventional tillage techniques disturb a large amount of soil and tend to release soil carbon into the atmosphere, while conservation tillage techniques emphasize minimizing soil disturbance and can allow soil carbon to build up.

Soil carbon sequestration holds the potential to remove significant amounts of atmospheric carbon if such conservation-oriented techniques are practiced at scale, with an estimated potential of at least 4 to 5 GT CO2/year.

Gevo places a large emphasis on techniques like conservation tillage, cover crops, and nutrient management. Corn, from which Gevo sources the residual starches used to produce fuels, is known to be particularly beneficial for building soil carbon stocks.

Learn more about Regenerative Agriculture >

Is Soil Carbon Sequestration the same as Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)?

Soil carbon sequestration involves storing carbon dioxide for an extended period in soil. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) involves capturing, transporting, and storing carbon dioxide. While CCS has grown more technically viable and scalable in the past few years, it pales in comparison to the carbon capture ability of climate smart agriculture.

Will Gevo also use CCS?

Yes. Gevo has explored traditional CCS such as capturing the carbon from our fermentation and com- bustion gases and using geologic formations to store the carbon indefinitely. This type of CCS is recognized globally as a viable long-term strategy for reducing the carbon footprint of many production processes.

What is the difference between fossil carbon and biogenic carbon?

Biogenic carbon is absorbed and stored by the flora on our planet as a natural consequence of its life cycle. Through photosynthesis, carbon is taken from the air and distributed among the leaves, stems, and roots of the plant in question, or otherwise sequestered in the soil beneath it. When the plant reaches the end of its life, the carbon is slowly released from its decomposing remains, or else emitted when the organic matter is combusted as biomass.

Fossil carbon, in the form of oil, coal or gas, is used in power stations to generate electricity that heats and lights our homes and businesses, and as petrol and diesel to power our transportation. In contrast to biogenic carbon, fossil carbon is not absorbed by living matter and accrues high carbon content over thou- sands or even millions of years due to extreme atmospheric pressures. Fossil carbon releases a significant amount of carbon in a short space of time. Since it takes millennia to form fossil fuels, combusting them and releasing their stored carbon in a matter of hours, days or weeks is environmentally unsustainable.

direct land use change

A common concern related to biofuels with agricultural feedstocks is the belief
that they cause deforestation. Do Gevo’s products cause deforestation?

Gevo does not work with providers whose land was cleared or deforested to produce our feedstock. We confirm that all supplier farms have not undergone adverse land changes after January 1, 2008, and routinely monitor farms to ensure that there are no new adverse land-use changes. Gevo uses satellite technologies as a part of the verification process. Gevo is a member of the Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials (RSB) and the International Sustainability & Carbon Certification (ISCC), and we are committed to satisfying the certification requirements of each, which involve extensive analysis of the environmental impact of our feedstock and fuel production. Gevo has obtained RSB Global and RSB CORSIA Certifications for biomass production and SAF trading and we plan to achieve additional certifications as we expand our processes. We also have developed and routinely updated an Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP), which ensures that our practices involve minimal risk of adverse impacts to land use, biodiversity, water use, soil health, air quality, human health, and food security. As part of our RSB Certification, our water management plan is available upon request.

indirect land use change

What is Indirect Land Use Change (ILUC) and how does Gevo think about it?

Growing agricultural feedstocks for biofuels has the potential to cause land use change indirectly, by affecting the global balance of supply and demand for various crops. Estimating this “indirect land use change” impact requires complex economic models, which attempt to trace potential impacts to implement a specific biofuel policy (think potential improvements to crop yields, potential changes in the demand for diverse types of animal feed or vegetable oils, and where crop or livestock production may be shifted). Though it is impossible for any producer to know or control the indirect impact of growing feedstock, Gevo works to mitigate the risk of an adverse impact and improve the agricultural sector broadly through:

Minimizing or eliminating displacement of crops used for animal feed by producing high-value nutritional products alongside fuels.

Encouraging continuous improvement across the agricultural sector, including increased adoption of sustainable and precision agriculture techniques that increase crop yield and reduce carbon intensity.

Supporting best scientific practices in modeling techniques used to estimate indirect land use change, which includes utilizing the most accurate, high-resolution land use data sources.

Incentivizing more sustainable agriculture practices: through Verity Tracking, Gevo expects to help connect farmers directly with groups willing to invest in better management practices on farms (including cover crops, increasing biodiversity, and enhancing clean water strategies). This allows sound science to drive positive impact, rather than focusing on reactionary mechanisms.

Learn more about Indirect Land Use Change >

When Gevo claims it is a net zero fuel does it account for
Indirect Land Use Change (ILUC) emissions

Yes, we account for ILUC emissions, for our Net-Zero claims we utilize Argonne National Laboratory’s GREET Model, which uses GTAP to model iLUC. Gevo has chosen to focus on sustainable farming practices to reduce the carbon intensity of the overall grain production systems, like creating financial incentives to encourage better agricultural practices such as no tillage and better nitrogen management. We hope one day that by creating this market with Verity Tracking we can encourage more farmers to adopt regenerative agriculture practices, thereby positively affecting iLUC.

Learn more about Indirect Land Use Change >

argonne GREET

How is the carbon intensity of Gevo’s fuels calculated?

The exact method of calculation depends on the specific accounting scheme employed by policymakers in each region or carbon market. We believe Argonne GREET® (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Technologies) model, developed by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is superior to any other LCA tool available and should be adopted as the standard. GREET employs complete, scientifically accurate and transparent carbon counting. This model also helps incentivize continuous improvement from all stakeholders from feedstock producers to energy consumers.

Other LCA models don’t include on-farm practices or carbon capture and sequestration values. We believe in using actual values for on-farm emissions intensity, rather than the default average values used in other schemes. Similarly, we believe that more regenerative farming techniques that are known to build soil carbon, such as conservation tillage and the use of cover crops, should be recognized and counted.

Learn more about Why We Believe Argonne GREET is the Superior Model >

california low carbon fuel credits

What is the importance of California and other regions with low-carbon fuel credits?
How can Gevo claim these credits if the fuels are produced elsewhere?

We believe it is crucial that policymakers properly account for the true cost of climate change and align incentives for all players in the market, from fossil fuel companies, to farmers, to renewable fuel producers, to end users—to seek out solutions to reduce GHG emissions now. Low-carbon fuel policies, such as the California LCFS, seek to do just that.

Climate change is not a problem that affects just one state—greenhouse gases know no borders. Many low-carbon fuel policies account for this by enabling credits to be generated according to where the sale is or where the fuel is used rather than where the fuel was produced, such as the California LCFS. This means that to gain value for the California carbon market, Gevo must sell our fuels in California.

greenhouse gas reduction under greet & CORSIa

What is Gevo SAF’s GHG reduction profile under GREET
and CORSIA and why is there a difference?

Under GREET Gevo can achieve a carbon intensity of approximately -5gCO2e/MJ of SAF. Under CORSIA Gevo can achieve a carbon intensity of approximately 39gCO2e/MJ of SAF. In CORSIA, the induced land use change value is 22gCO2e/MJ for ATJ from corn, and Gevo cannot affect this value directly. As opposed to GREET, CORSIA currently does not allow the life cycle to account for soil carbon accumulation or regenerative agriculture. GREET captures the entire lifecycle; CORSIA and other models pick and choose what to include.

Learn more about Why We Believe Argonne GREET is the Superior Model >

Why is Gevo’s feedstock a residue and not a co-product?

When an animal nutritionist looks at the whole grain of field corn, they see different components with different values to an animal and ultimately the animal feed chain, such as protein, fiber, and starch. The highest value component is the protein, and it is ideal to be concentrated by separating it from the fiber and starch. The starch (a sugar) has extremely low nutritional value as an animal feed, does not generate an economic value and therefore is a residue of protein production. Absent technology applications like Gevo’s, there is no real market for the residual starch.

The world is short on proteins and long on sugars, so it makes economic sense to get as much protein out of the kernel as possible instead of directing the sugars (starch) to the food/feed industry. The starch then becomes a leftover for which there is no economic value.

Learn more about Corn and the Carbon Cycle >

Learn more about High-value Nutrition Products >

Greenhouse gas (GHG) Tracking

How does Gevo track GHG emissions?

GHG emissions for renewable fuels are more commonly evaluated through a life-cycle assessment (LCA), which calculates the amount of greenhouse gases that are released per unit of energy, including emissions and carbon sequestration. Emissions reductions are high for advanced biofuels.

Gevo’s product line focuses on decarbonization of the process at every step to give each of its advanced renewable fuels the lowest carbon LCA possible. At Gevo, we’re always looking for a better way to do things. The Argonne GREET Model (The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) provides a standard of measurement for the real impact of transportation fuel. It measures a fuel from feedstock to production to combustion, with key factors considered, such as land use with respect to food production and habitat, water-quality impacts, and more, all in a Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) measurement.

The GREET model has been used and put to the test in the California Air Resources Board Low Carbon Fuel Standard (CARB LCFS) where it has demonstrated accurate assessment of comparisons in transportation systems. Gevo has also undergone GHG calculations and verification of the GHG emissions associated with our processes through RSB and ISCC for EU RED methodology.

What is the GHG emission savings of the fuel produced?

Gevo introduced the concept of Net Zero Projects in early 2021. These future production facilities will produce energy dense liquid hydrocarbons using renewable energy and proprietary technology. The first of these projects, Net Zero 1, will be built near Lake Preston, South Dakota. Net Zero 1 is expected to achieve net zero GHG emissions, according to Argonne’s GREET model, meaning 100% savings when compared to conventional petroleum fuels. The systems Gevo will employ include wind electricity, on-site combined heat and power, and biogas from waste. Gevo has chosen to use these renewable resources systems to power the Net Zero 1 facility, to further enable clean energy infrastructure.

Why is Gevo’s fuel an advanced biofuel?

Gevo’s fuel is an advanced biofuel because of the feedstock used, the process technology, and the scale of the process applied. The feedstock is a residue that comes from the production of high protein animal feed, aquaculture feed, and pet food by using innovative engineering designs and concepts.

Protein extraction technologies like the one Gevo will use at Net-Zero 1 are innovative methods to concentrate nutrients in animal feeds. Furthermore, in Gevo’s process a special yeast organism is used that was designed to convert residual starch into isobutanol. Gevo employs a patented engineering technology called Gevo Integrated Fermentation Technology (GIFT)® to remove the isobutanol from the fermentation without hurting the yeast. This technology allows the residual starch to be converted into hydrocarbons rather than disposed of or require extreme inputs to clean. There are no similar facilities using this technology currently in operations anywhere in the world.

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commercial airline industry usage

Does Gevo’s fuel require a change to the airline’s infrastructure? Or changes to the planes?

No. Once finished, the fuels are functionally identical to petroleum-based fuels but have reduced pollutants due to cleaner production methods. It also can be used in existing airplane infrastructure without any modifications needed to a plane’s engines. Many groups are considering using 100 percent SAF, rather than blending with fossil fuels, but this is not yet allowed by ASTM.

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How is this fuel different from fossil-based jet fuel?

The carbon source is renewable rather than fossil carbon, molecularly they are identical. Because the manufacturing process is cleaner, many pollutants such as sulfur, nitrogen, and particulates typical in fossil-based fuels are not in Gevo’s fuels. The fuels are functionally identical except SAF has reduced pollutants due to cleaner production methods. Fossil jet fuel is made by cracking crude oil, and typically contains impurities. Gevo fuel is built up from basic butanol molecules so there are no impurities.

Gevo’s feedstocks have been certified as ISCC+ by International Sustainability and Carbon Certification—a mark proving the use of sustainable feedstocks. The work Gevo has done with farms certified today is equivalent to having planted over 42 million trees in a year.

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